It took a total of 37 words to change the education of millions of women and girls in the United States. However, the concise language in Title IX, an important education law signed in 1972, stems from even fewer symbols.
“You’re too strong for a woman.”
This Dr. When Bernice Sandler applied for a permanent position at the University of Maryland in 1969, she was already an assistant professor. Three years later – after a class dispute on behalf of women with higher education and a cunning maneuver by a handful of lawmakers – for the first time in American history, women were given the means to have equal access to higher education.
Due to its widespread repercussions, Chapter IX passed with a small noise, a remarkable whisper between two other landmark provisions designed to give women rights over a 12-month period: the Amendment to Equal Rights and the Roe v. Wade. Fifty years later, it seems, only one in three will survive.
The Equal Rights Amendment, which proposed explicit guarantees for the equal protection of women in the US Constitution, was first proposed in 1923 and approved by the Senate on March 22, 1972. add.
Title IX was signed on June 23, 1972 by President Richard M. Nixon.
Roe v. Wade, the Supreme Court’s decision to legalize abortion in the United States was announced in January. 22, 1973. But most likely he will not see the 50th anniversary of the decision. On May 2, a draft opinion was leaked, suggesting that the Supreme Court could overturn an earlier decision that would lead to rapid changes in law in many states.
But what makes Title IX so enduring? Act of Congress and broad public support for beginners. However, although Title IX is intended to equalize college admissions, perhaps its most notable achievement was the inclusion of women in inter-school sports, which exploded in many youth sports for girls.
“Everyone can be involved in sports, whether it’s your favorite team or college sports experience – sport is a common denominator that brings us together,” said Dr. Courtney Flowers, professor of sports management at the University of Southern Texas, and co-author of a new review of Title IX by the Women’s Sports Foundation. “Everyone knows the word, but it is associated with athletics.”
According to the report, more than 3 million high school girls have access to sports since the beginning of Title IX. Today, women make up 44 percent of all college athletes, up from 15 percent before the ninth title.
“There should have been legislation that opened the door and changed the way of thinking,” Cicek said, adding: “There’s Serena for the ninth title, there’s Simone Biles.”
50th anniversary of the IX title
An important gender equality law that came into force in 1972 changed women’s access to education, sports, and more.
Chapter IX emerged as an emblem of civil rights and women’s liberation movements. However, like the policies that preceded Chapter IX, its path to success was uncertain. According to experts, the main thing is to keep it under the radar and widely.
U.S. officials. Edith Green of Oregon, a longtime advocate for women’s inclusion and the first woman to be elected to Congress, Hawaiian Patsy Mink, saw the struggles she faced as she passed the Equal Rights Amendment in the House and Senate. When they began to prepare Chapter IX, they tried to do so in a way that would not cause them to back down from their colleagues and educational institutions.
Green and Mink were considering amending the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which, among other things, prohibits racial and gender discrimination in federal-funded programs. However, the inclusion of an education provision seemed politically difficult.
On the other hand, the re-approval of the Higher Education Act of 1965 made it possible to add a ninth title or subsection to the long list of educational changes. The act eventually turned into an omnibus education bill dealing with anti-bus policy and federal funding for college students.
Although Green and Mink decided to reject the amendment to the Civil Rights Act, they saw a reason to use his language.
No one in the United States, based on gender, to be excluded from participation, to be deprived of benefits or to be discriminated against any educational program or activity Receives federal financial assistance.
Dr. Elizabeth A. Sharrow, Professor of History and Political Science at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst. “They did it very subtly and quietly, and they did it on purpose, because they thought the idea – which we should name some things like sex discrimination in education – could be politically controversial, and it would be better to find ways to reduce it.”
This was individual for both Green and Mink, and their discriminatory practices influenced their policies. Green initially wanted to be a lawyer, but was encouraged to teach by his family; Because Mink was a woman, she was not allowed to attend medical school with them.
“I think it was a real motivation to watch her daughter go through the same isolation and flat jackets she had in her childhood and adolescence, and to see it happen again. The factor and discrimination were declared wrong to try to find a way to make her equality standard, ”said Patsy Minkin’s daughter and political scientist Wendy Mink.
It was also personal for Senator Birch Bayh of Indiana. After sponsoring the Equal Rights Amendment in the Senate, he was instructed to do the same for Chapter IX. Bayh’s wife, Marvella, was also denied equal opportunities.
“My father felt it was a deep injustice,” said his son, Evan Bayh, a former Indiana senator. “He felt that if our society was ready to realize its potential, we could not neutralize more than half of the population.”
Little attention has been paid to the inclusion of Chapter IX in the substance of the bill, which restricts financial assistance and deregulation tactics. President Nixon did not mention this in a statement. The signing of the bill became the front page of The New York Times; The ninth head received a bullet point.
Phyllis Schlafly and Roe v., Who led a radical conservative campaign against the ratification of the Equal Rights Amendment. According to Wade, social conservatives and religious leaders were preparing to protest, Dr. Deondra Rose is an associate professor of public policy at Duke University, focusing on important social policies in the United States.
Chapter IX also called Rose’s “core” advantage as an education policy passed down through many generations.
A 2017 survey by the National Women’s Law Center found that about 80 percent of voters supported Chapter IX. (A March survey of parents and children by Ipsos and the University of Maryland found that most had not heard of Title IX, but that boys ‘and girls’ sports teams should generally be treated equally.)
“It’s hard for nationalists to take a step back,” Sharrow said.
Amendment of Equal Rights, Roe v. Wade and Title IX are all linked to attempts to target gender inequality in American society, Sharrow said, but they differ in how they use law and policy to make a difference.
Changing Equal Rights was an attempt to change the Constitution, a process that will be very difficult. Even if it had been ratified, Sharow said, “It would be more comprehensive than any other policy.”
Roe v. Wade, on the contrary, was an interpretation of constitutional law as a decision of the Supreme Court.
According to Rose, the advantage of Chapter IX is that it is relatively uncertain, which “gives regulation a chance to fight over time.”
This does not mean that the ninth head escaped criticism. As soon as the law was signed, the issue of performance, primarily related to athletics and physical education, said Wendy Mink. The screams began in early 1973, when Roe’s decision was made. A long discussion on the rules of execution, concluded in 1979, focused on whether sports were a suitable place for women.
“As a reaction, they were feeding each other – a reaction to women’s physical sovereignty and their ability to use women’s bodies in athletics,” Mink said.
The breadth of Chapter IX also provided a broad umbrella for defenses against sexual harassment and assault on campus. In 1977, a group of women in Yale became convinced of this with a lawsuit that led to the establishment of complaint procedures for colleges across the country.
“Title IX is great – we are subjective, not more objective,” said Dr. Ann Olivarius is one of the main plaintiffs in the Yale court and a lawyer specializing in sexual exploitation. “We are actually participants, we are active narrators of our lives with our bodies, and we know that we actually have bodies, and we use these bodies.”
As he encountered in 1972, Title IX evolved to introduce a more inclusive society. In 2021, the Department of Education said it plans to expand Title IX protection for transgender students. (The Biden administration has not yet finalized its proposals.)
Eighteen states have passed laws or enacted laws restricting the participation of transgender girls in girls’ sports, and a group of 15 state attorneys general called on the Biden administration in April to reconsider its interpretation of Chapter IX.
“We see the need to go beyond a very narrow definition of these policies and the understanding of a policy like Chapter IX,” Rose said. “Some people are trying to use Title IX to limit and limit, and that is beyond the intent of the policy.”
According to experts, the 50th anniversary of the adoption of the law is a moment to be celebrated, but it is also a moment to look at what the ninth chapter does not touch. Access to college sports has improved, but injustice remains. Elements other than gender, including race and disability, are not included in Chapter IX.
“Yes, we celebrate, but baby, we still have work to do,” said Cicek.
The Women’s Sports Foundation found that men have about 60,000 more opportunities in college sports than women. Women in college sports also lag behind their male counterparts in retirement, fundraising and head coaching. Women of color, in particular, still lag behind their white peers – only 14 percent of college athletes are women of color.
Most experts agree that, given the broad support of Chapter IX, the Amendment to Equal Rights, or Roe v. Wade. Libby Adler, a professor of constitutional law at Northeastern University, says the weakening of Chapter IX and how it can be weakened is “in the eye of the beholder.”
“I do not see him being shot. I can’t imagine how that would be, “Adler said.” Never say never, but it’s unbelievable to me. “
However, in the case of transgender athletes and other classes that are not clearly defined in the language, Adler said, Chapter IX could be interpreted differently.
“It is this elasticity or uncertainty that makes it difficult to destroy, but it is more likely to be interpreted in accordance with the policies of the judges we have,” he said.